Electric motors are manufactured in an almost unmanageable variety. They exist as tiny engines, for example in toys. As medium-power engines, they compete with the combustion engine in garden tools, for example. Large motors, for example, supply the drives for electric machine tools. But these motors do not only differ in their design. They are also offered in a number of basically different types.
How does an electric motor work?
In principle, the electric motor is a rather old technology that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The current used can be direct, alternating or three-phase current, from the socket, from a rechargeable battery or from batteries.
In the electric motor, the interactions of magnetic fields on each other are exploited to generate a rotary motion. A mostly fixed outdoor part is opposed by a movable indoor part. These two parts can either both consist of a current-carrying coil or one of the components is a permanent magnet. A magnetic field is created around each coil through which a current flows. The orientation of this field depends on the current direction.
The movable inner part is set in rotation by the repulsion forces of the magnetic fields. This movement is converted into mechanical energy via a wave.
DC motors have a permanent magnet as a fixed part. If the current direction in the moving coil is changed, its direction of rotation also changes. If the motor is operated with alternating current or three-phase current, the fixed part must also consist of a coil, because otherwise the direction of rotation would constantly change according to the frequency of the current. AC and especially three-phase AC motors generally have a higher power output than DC motors. The power of the motor also depends on the voltage used.
Different types of electric motor
alternating current motors
Where are these motors used?
These motors can be found in different versions, for example:
in model making
in electrical appliances for house, garden and workshops
in automation technology
in production machines
in vehicles - very up-to-date: in electric cars,
Electric scooters etc.
The advantages of the electric motor compared to a combustion engine
The electric motor has a much simpler design and can therefore be produced more cost-effectively than a combustion engine. This motor has a high efficiency of approximately 90 %. The efficiency of the combustion engine is approx. 30 %. An electric motor is much quieter. The electric motor reaches full torque very quickly. The combustion engine, on the other hand, must first reach a certain speed in order to achieve optimum torque.
Which criteria are important when choosing a manufacturer?
Numerous manufacturers offer electric motors in a wide variety of designs, performances and shapes. In order to find a suitable manufacturer, it is worth comparing the offers. The following questions are interesting for this comparison. How large is the selection of suitable motors from this manufacturer? Does he offer buying advice? Is there a customer service available for any assistance that may be required when installing the engine? What are the delivery times for the type of engine you require? Is there a repair service?