The centrifugal pump conveys food as well as waste water.
Due to its design, the centrifugal pump can be used for a wide range of applications. Depending on the design, it can be used to convey foodstuffs such as milk or wine, but also waste water with solid or chemical impurities.
The different designs of these pumps
Centrifugal pumps are manufactured in the following designs:
radial pumps Radial pumps convey the liquid out of the pump perpendicular to the drive shaft. This type of conveying permits comparatively high pressures, but the flow rate is rather low.
axial pumps, also known as propeller pumps Here the liquid is conveyed parallel to the drive shaft. The impeller has the shape of a propeller. That's where the alternative name comes from. This design is particularly suitable for gentle conveying of the material to be conveyed.
Diagonal pumps, also known as semi axial pumps This design is a mixture of axial and radial pump. The pumped liquid exits the pump diagonally to the drive shaft. The outlet angle is adjustable.
Side channel pumps Strictly speaking, they are a combination of centrifugal and positive displacement pumps. This makes them self-priming and allows them to convey gases together with the liquid. This pump variant is often used for pressure-dependent control of liquid circuits.
peripheral impeller pumps This design is also particularly suitable for low flow rates and high delivery pressures. Liquid is sucked into ring-shaped canal by that pump. It is driven by an internal gyroscope.
Function and design of these pumps
A great advantage of these pumps is their simple, low failure-prone design. They consist of a housing, a drive shaft with an impeller, an inlet nozzle and one or more outlet openings. The size and shape of the casing are determined by the impeller. During operation, the impeller rotates around the drive shaft and thus sets the liquid to be pumped in rotation. It is thereby pressed against the outer walls of the pump and flows out through the outlet openings. The impeller can be open or closed, is usually equipped with blades, but can also be equipped with a cutting device. The more open the impeller is, the better the pump can convey small solids or fibrous particles. The maximum possible size of these particles is approx. 70 mm. If larger impurities are to be conveyed, an impeller with cutting device can be used. It crushes the particles to a manageable size. Closed impeller pumps are much more efficient than open impeller pumps.
Some application examples
The pumps have a typical delivery head of up to 5,000 m. The flow rate reaches up to 60 m³/s. The impeller is often made of stainless steel to withstand higher loads. These pumps are used in agriculture and water management, for example to fill tanks. They are used for drainage in mines and on construction sites. They can be found in heating and cooling systems as circulating pumps. The fire brigade and disaster control also like to use this type of pump.